20, November 2016

1.Income Tax Department to launch Project Insight in May 2017

The Income Tax department is planning to implement the first phase of ‘Project Insight’ from May 2017 to monitor high value transactions, with a view to curbing the circulation of black money.

 This project has been initiated for data mining, collection, collation and processing of such information for effective risk management with a view to widening and deepening tax base.

Keyfacts:

  • Project Insight’ is an integrated platform that will utilize vast amount of information easily available on social media to conduct raids online rather than traditional way of conducting random searches, known as tax raids.
  • The Permanent Account Number (PAN) will be the unique identifier is used by the Income Tax department to link and analyse various transactions relating to the tax payers.
  • This will enhance the department’s ability to monitor the flow of funds and will provide an audit trail of high value transactions and curb circulation of black money The ‘Project Insight’ will be implemented in phased manner during the period 2016-2018.
  • It will also be leveraged for implementation of Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act Inter Governmental Agreement (FATCA IGA) and Common Reporting Standard (CRS).

Project Insight

  • It will help in catching tax evaders in a non-intrusive manner using technology and without traditional intrusive methods like search and seizure.
  • The integrated platform will play a key role in widening of tax base and data mining to track tax evaders.
  • The reporting compliance management system of project will ensure that third party reporting by entities like banks and other financial institutions is timely and accurate.
  • It will also set up a streamlined data exchange mechanism for other government departments.

2.Navy inducts 4 types of indigenously developed sonars

Source: PIB

Navy has formally inducted four types of indigenously developed sonars that will boost its underwater surveillance capability.

The systems have been designed and developed by NPOL, a Kochi based laboratory of DRDO.

  • With the induction of these four systems, the underwater surveillance capability of the Indian Navy will get a boost, besides providing a fillip to the quest for self-reliance in this critical area of technology.

Four Systems:

The systems included

1.Abhay – compact hull mounted sonar for shallow water crafts

  • Abhay is an advanced active-cum-passive integrated sonar system designed and developed for the smaller platforms such as shallow water crafts and coastal surveillance/patrol vessels.
  • It is capable of detecting, localizing, classifying and tracking sub-surface and surface targets in both its active and passive modes of operation.
  • Indian Navy has proposed to induct this SONAR on three of the Abhay class ships.

2.Humsa UG – upgrade for the Humsa sonar system

  • Humsa -UG is designed for upgrading the existing Humsa sonar system. This system is proposed to be installed on seven ships of three different classes of ships.

3.NACS – Near-field Acoustic Characterisation System

  • It determines the in-situ performance of the SONAR systems, which are used to find the frequency-dependent 3-D transmission and reception characteristics of the SONAR.
  • It is also used to measure the magnitude and phase characteristics of the SONAR transmission and reception electronics and the transducers.

4.AIDSS – Advanced Indigenous Distress sonar

  • AIDSS is a distress sonar is an Emergency Sound Signaling Device which is used to indicate that a submarine is in distress and enable quick rescue and salvage.
  • It is a life-saving alarm system designed to transmit sonar signals of a pre-designated frequency and pulse shape in an emergency situation from a submarine for long period, so as to attract the attention of passive sonars of ships or submarines in the vicinity and all types of standard rescue vessels in operation.

3.Khehar made NALSA executive chairman

Source: The Hindu

The Union government has announced that Jagdish Singh Khehar, a judge of the Supreme Court, will be the new Executive Chairman of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA). He succeeds Anil R. Dave.

NALSA:

  • The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society.
  • Public awareness, equal opportunity and deliverable justice are the cornerstones on which the edifice of NALSA is based.
  • The principal objective of NALSA is to provide free and competent legal services to the weaker sections of the society and to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities, and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes.
  • Apart from the abovementioned, functions of NALSA include spreading legal literacy and awareness, undertaking social justice litigations etc.

Constitution of India

  • Towards fulfilling the Preambular promise of securing to all the citizens, Justice – social, economic and political, Article 39 A of the Constitution of India provides for free legal aid to the poor and weaker sections of the society, to promote justice on the basis of equal opportunity.
  • Articles 14 and 22(1) of the Constitution also make it obligatory for the State to ensure equality before law.
  • In 1987, the Legal Services Authorities Act was enacted by the Parliament, which came into force on 9th November, 1995 to establish a nationwide uniform network for providing free and competent legal services to the weaker sections of the society.

4.Demystifying Science: What is Frankenfixation?

Source: The Hindu

Frankenfixation refers to the use of genetic modification to fix carbon dioxide into the soil.

It derives from term popularised by critics of genetically modified foods, ‘Frankenfoods’.

  • The U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute recently oversaw an effort to piece together an artificial metabolism from the bits and pieces of biosynthetic pathways that were once scattered across the three kingdoms of life.

What they found was a novel pathway based on a new CO2-fixing enzyme that is nearly 20 times faster than the most prevalent enzyme in nature responsible for capturing CO2 in plants by using sunlight as energy.

Were such pathways to be perfected, new species of plants, trees or entirely new organisms, could be grown that are specifically designed to take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and hold off the looming crisis of rising global temperatures.

5.Infant Mortality

Source: PIB

United Nations has recently set Sustainable Development Goals and Targets. The target for India is to attain U5MR of 25/1000 live births by 2030

  • As per report published by Lancet in 2016 approximately 57 thousand neonatal deaths each year in India may be attributable to neonatal sepsis caused by bacteria resistant to first-line antibiotics.
  • As per the Sample Registration Report (SRS) of Registrar General of India, the major causes of deaths of children (2010-13) are- Prematurity & low birth weight (29.8%), Pneumonia (17.1%), Diarrhoeal disease (8.6%), Other Non-Communicable Diseases (8.3%).

The Government of India is implementing the following interventions under the National Health Mission (NHM) all across the country to reduce infant mortality rate:

  1. Promotion of Institutional deliveries through cash incentive under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK) which entitles all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions to absolutely free ante-natal check-ups, delivery including Caesarean section, post-natal care and treatment of sick infants till one year of age.
  2. Strengthening of delivery points for providing comprehensive and quality Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A) Services
  3. India Newborn Action Plan (IANP) was launched in 2014 to make concerted efforts towards attainment of the goals of “Single Digit Neonatal Mortality Rate” and “Single Digit Stillbirth Rate”, by 2030.
  4. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for first six months and appropriate Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices are promoted in convergence with Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  5. Village Health and Nutrition Days (VHNDs) are observed for provision of maternal and child health services.
  6. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched MAA-Mothers’ Absolute Affection programme in August 2016 for improving breastfeeding practices.
  7. Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is being supported to provide vaccination to children against many life threatening diseases such as Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Polio, Tetanus, Hepatitis B and Measles are Mission Indradhanush.
  8. Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) for health screening, early detection of birth defects, diseases, deficiencies, development delays including disability and early intervention services has been operationalized to provide comprehensive care to all the children in the age group of 0-18 years in the community
  9. Some other important interventions are Iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation for the prevention of anaemia among the vulnerable age groups
  10. Promotion of infant and young child feeding practices to prevent onset of malnutrition, Vitamin A supplementation. Etc.

6.Disposal of Bio-Medical Waste – Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Source: PIB

Government of India (GoI) has notified the Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and these rules are further amended in the year 2000 and 2003 and revamped Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016.

According to Rule

  1. Treatment and disposal, the health care facilities (HCFs) and common bio-medical waste treatment facility (CBWTF) shall treat and dispose the Bio-medical waste in accordance with Schedule-I, and in compliance with the standards provided in Schedule-II.

Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

  • Requested all the State Pollution Control Board (SPCBs,) Pollution Control Committee (PCCs) and Director General Armed Forces Medical Services (DGAFMS) for Constitution of ‘State Level Advisory Committee (SLAC)’ by the State Government or UT Administration in the respective State or UT.
  • The activities initiated by the SLAC; and (ii) Constitution of the ‘District Level Monitoring Committee (DLMC)’ by the State Government or UT Administration.

CPCB relating to management of Bio-Medical Waste:

  1. Common Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBWTFs)
  2. Design & Construction of Bio-Medical Waste incinerators
  3. Disposal of Bio-Medical Waste generated during Universal Immunization Programme
  4. Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Management of Mercury Waste generated from the Health Care Facilities.

7.PM announces ex gratia of Rs. 2 lakhs for the next of kin of those killed, and Rs. 50,000 for those seriously injured: – rail accident in Uttar Pradesh

Source: PMINDIA

PMNRF- PM National Relief Fund:

  1. In pursuance of an appeal by the then Prime Minister, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in January, 1948, the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF) was established with public contributions to assist displaced persons from Pakistan.
  2. The resources of the PMNRF are now utilized primarily to render immediate relief to families of those killed in natural calamities like floods, cyclones and earthquakes, etc. and to the victims of the major accidents and riots.
  3. Assistance from PMNRF is also rendered, to partially defray the expenses for medical treatment like heart surgeries, kidney transplantation, cancer treatment, etc
  4. The fund consists entirely of public contributions and does not get any budgetary support.
  5. The corpus of the fund is invested with PSU banks in various forms. Disbursements are made with the approval of the Prime Minister.
  6. PMNRF has not been constituted by the Parliament. The fund is recognized as a Trust under the Income Tax Act and the same is managed by Prime Minister or multiple delegates for national causes.
  7. (PMNRF) accepts voluntary contributions from Individuals, Organizations, Trusts, Companies and Institutions etc. PMNRF is exempt under Income Tax Act, 1961.

The acceptance of donations in PMNRF is subject to the following terms

  1. Contributions from Government/budgetary support or from the balance sheets of PSUs are not accepted in PMNRF
  2. Donor specifically mentions that the amount is meant for a particular purpose, are not accepted in the Fund.
  3. PMNRF provides relief only to the citizens of India. Hence contributions wherein the donor mention that the amount is meant for the foreign citizens/calamities abroad, are not accepted in the Fund.


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