13, October 2016

1.Montreal Protocol meet in Kigali to focus on phasing-out of planet-warming HFCs

Source: Indian Express

THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER

Montreal Protocol, formally Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, international treaty, adopted in Montreal on Sept. 16, 1987, that aimed to regulate the production and use of chemicals that contribute to the depletion of Earth’s ozone layer.

The meeting called for international cooperation in research to convention of Ozone layer

  1. Involving ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) and
  2. Empowered the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to lay the groundwork for the Montreal Protocol.

The 28th meeting of Parties to the Montreal Protocol officially opens today in Kigali,  organisations at the talks for a new global agreement on climate change.

  • Global agreement on an ambitious amendment to the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydroflourocarbons, or HFCs – which are also potent greenhouse gases that greatly contribute to global climate change.
  • India, which has a fast-growing air-conditioning and refrigerant industry, is the only major country to be still holding back from committing itself to early restrictions on HFC (hydrofluorocarbons) production and consumption.
  • India wants its industry to be allowed to grow unhindered for another ten years, before it starts making the HFC-reductions.

Baseline years reducions between countries:

Though a relatively small contributor to global warming overall, accounting for about 5 per cent of total greenhouse gases, the use of HFCs is growing at about ten per cent annually. If left unabated, these are estimated to account for 19 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2050.

  1. Countries have to decide on a baseline year, against which their future reductions would be measured.
  2. It is proposed that the developed world consider the average production and consumption in the years 2011-2013 as their baseline and reduce their HFC use by at least 10 per cent by the year 2019 from that value.
  3. India has been proposing 2024-2026 as the baseline years for developing countries like itself, but there are others who want this to be 2020-2022.
  4. China, and many other developing countries, agree to the 2020-2022 baseline, leading to fears that India might be completely isolated.

2. First World Tsunami Awareness Day to be celebrated at AMCDRR 2016

SOURCE: PIB

The first World Tsunami Awareness Day will be celebrated on November 5, 2016 at the Asian Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR) 2016.

The conference will organised from November 3 to 5, 2016 in New Delhi by the Union Government in collaboration with United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).

To commemorate the occasion, an event will be organised with Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Champions at the AMCDRR 2016.

World Tsunami Awareness Day

  1. The World Tsunami Awareness Day was instituted by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) by adopting a resolution proposed by Japan.
  2. The objective of the day is to spread awareness among people across the world in matters related to the dangers of tsunami and stress on the importance of early warning systems in order to mitigate damage from the devastating natural calamity.
  3. It also seeks to revive traditional knowledge about tsunamis.

INDIA’S INITIATIVE:

  • Following the devastating Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004, Central Government established an Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC).
  • It is operational since October 2007. ITEWC was established under the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) at Hyderabad.
  • The Centre has state-of-the-art infrastructure for generating and disseminating tsunami bulletins for the entire Indian Ocean region. Besides, India along with 23 other Indian Ocean countries had participated in a tsunami mock drill in September 2016.

3.International Day for Disaster Reduction- 13 October

SOURCE: UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction)

The International Day for Disaster Reduction began in 1989, after a call by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) for a day to promote a global culture of risk-awareness and disaster reduction.

Reducing their exposure to disasters and raising awareness about the importance of reining in the risks that they face.

2016 Theme: Live To Tell: Raising Awareness, Reducing Mortality

SENDAI FRAME WORK

  1. The 2016 edition marks the launch of the new “Sendai Seven” campaign by UNISDR, The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes which it campaign seeks to create a wave of awareness about actions taken to reduce mortality around the world.
  2. The Sendai Seven Campaign is an opportunity for all, including governments, local governments, community groups, civil society organisations, the private sector, international organisations and the UN family, to promote best practices to reduce disaster risk and disaster losses.
  3. It is the successor agreement to the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005–2015), which was the most encompassing international accord on disaster risk reduction to date.

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction:

MAKING THE DIFFERENCE FOR POVERTY, HEALTH AND RESILIENCE.

  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with seven targets and four priorities for action.
  • It was endorsed by the UN General Assembly following the 2015 Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR).

The Seven Global Targets- Framework by 2030

  1. Reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
  2. Reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030.
  3. Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
  4. Reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities.
  5. Increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
  6. Enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support.
  7. Increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments.

The Four Priorities for Action

  1. Understanding disaster risk
  2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
  3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
  4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

4.Draft National Water Framework Bill, 2016 suggests basin-level management

Source: The Hindu

The Central Government has brought final draft of the National Water Framework Bill, 2016 to provide uniform national legal framework to manage water in a better and efficient way.

  • Providing for a mechanism to develop and manage river basin in an integrated manner so that every state gets “equitable” share of a river’s water without violating rights of others.
  • The comprehensive draft Bill proposes model law for all states. However, water being a State subject under VII Schedule of constitution the law will be not binding on States for adoption.

Key facts of Bill:

  1. Establishing River Basin Authority for each inter-state basin to ensure “optimum and sustainable” development of rivers and valleys and devises an integrated approach to conserve water and manage groundwater in a sustainable manner.
  2. Right to sufficient quantity of safe water for life” within easy reach of the household regardless of caste, creed, religion, age, community, class, gender, disability, economic status, land ownership and place of residence.
  3. All basin states are equal in rights and status, and there is no hierarchy of rights among them, and further, in this context, equality of rights means not equal but equitable shares in the river waters.
  4. River Basin Authority will prepare a master plan for the river basin
  5. The ‘statement of objects and reasons’ of the draft bill, at the same time, makes it clear that the proposed legislation is “not intended to centralise water management or to change the Centre-State relations in any way”.
  6. It provides an umbrella statement of general principles governing the exercise of legislative or executive (or devolved) powers by the Centre, the states and the local governance institutions.


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