10&11, September 2017

1.Northeast calling festival in Delhi, B2B summit prime focus

Source: PIB

Aims at promoting art, culture, heritage, cuisine, handicrafts, business and tourism of the seven sisters and Sikkim

  • The “North East Calling” event is being organised by the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), Government of India under its ‘Destination North East’ series of this year.
  • The purpose of the event is to promote the art, culture, heritage, cuisine, handicrafts, business and tourism of North East India.

Key facts:

  • The Business to Business (B2B) conference is also being organised during the event. On the occasion, three MoUs were also signed in the presence of the Minister.
  • The first MoU was signed between North East Tourism Development Council and the Yes Bank.
  • The other two MoUs were signed with the Ministry under Science & Technology Interventions in the North East Region (STINER) aiming at enabling STINER and promoting NISARGRUNA technology of BARC in bio-energy technology in association with Tripura State.
  • “North East Venture Fund’, a joint initiative of Ministry of DoNER and North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd, that seeks to promote entrepreneurship and start-ups in the region.

NISARGRUNA Biogas plant – Based on Biodegradable waste resource

  • This plant can process biodegradable waste such as kitchen waste, paper, grass, gobar and dry leaves.
  • It offers Zero garbage and Zero effluent and provides high quality manure and methane gas.
  • Weedfree manure obtained from such waste has high nitrogen contents and acts as an excellent soil conditioner.
  • This plant could be set up for ecofriendly disposal of wet-waste generated in kitchens/canteens of big Hospitals/Hotels/Factories/residential complexes and can avoid health hazards due to dump sites.
  • This technology of biphasic biomethanation has high potential of solving the solid waste management problems of the urban areas and provides organic manure and bio-gas as a fuel.


  • The waste is first segregated carefully to remove non-biodegradable material and then homogenized to make a slurry. It is then processed in a sequential manner first by aerobic and then by anaerobic process. The products of the process are biogas consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor & weed free good quality manure. About 70% of Water can be recycled at the end of the process.


Biomethanation is a process by which organic material is microbiologically converted under anaerobic conditions to biogas. Three main physiological groups of microorganisms are involved: fermenting bacteria, organic acid oxidizing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea

2.Successful Flight Test of 3rd Generation Anti Tank Guided Missile – NAG

Source: PIB

India’s indigenously developed 3rd generation Anti Tank Guided Missile (ATGM), Nag has been successfully flight tested twice by DRDO against two different targets in the ranges of Rajasthan.

  • The ATGM Nag missile has successfully hit both the targets under different ranges and conditions with very high accuracy as desired by the Armed Forces.
  • With these two successful flight trials, and the flight test conducted earlier in June in the peak of summer, the complete functionality of Nag ATGM along with launcher system NAMICA has been established and marked the successful completion of development trials of Nag Missile.

NAMICA (NAG Missile Carrier), Advanced NAG Variant, Anti-Tank Weapon:

  • This is considered the one of the ghost weapon developed by India as many of us don’t even know about it. It is the mainly the 3rd generation Nag “fire-and-forget” anti-tank missile developed in India that is mounted on BMP-2 tank. It is one of five missile systems developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
  • NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier) launch vehicle for the land version of the Nag a third generation, all weather, top-attack, fire-and-forget anti-tank missile with the Indian Army. It is based on the Sarath, the Indian built version of the Russian BMP-2 tracked infantry combat vehicle and this has a total of eight Nag ATGW in the ready to launch position, additional missiles being stowed inside. These can be reloaded from within the vehicle under full armour protection.
  • In addition to the tripod-mounted ground-based version of the Nag ATGW, there are at least three other versions – the self-propelled NAMICA and two helicopter-based versions. The latter will include the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH).
  • NAMICA (NAG missile carrier)part of the Nag anti-tank missile system which is launched from a retractable armoured launcher that contains four launch tubes and the guidance package. “Nag” is a fire-and-forget top-attack ATGM with a tandem-HEAT warhead.

Features and Capabilities

  • NAMICA contains 8 Nag missiles in armoured box launchers and a further 8 more for reload with a complete optical and IR sensor suite to detect enemy tanks.
  • The missiles are work on fire and forget principle which increases their capability of hiting the target at even more than 5 kms of range.

3.Navika Sagar Parikrama

Source: PIB

Defence Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman recently flagged-off all-women crew of Navika Sagar Parikrama at the INS Mandovi naval training base near Panaji.

  • The crew of the ‘Sagar Parikrama’ comprises of six-member all women team on board the sailing vessel INSV Tarini and will circumnavigate the globe in approximately 165 days.

Key facts:

  • This is the first ever Indian circumnavigation of the globe by an all-women crew. The project is considered essential towards promoting Ocean Sailing activities in the Navy while depicting Government of India’s thrust for ‘Nari Shakti’.
  • The expedition has been aptly titled ‘Navika Sagar Parikrama’, aimed at promoting women empowerment in the country and ocean sailing by the Indian Navy.
  • Navika Sagar Parikrama would cover the expedition in five legs with stop-overs at four ports (Fremantle, Australia; Lyttleton, New Zealand; Port Stanley, the Falklands; and Cape town, South Africa) for replenishment of ration and repairs as necessary, before returning to Goa in April 2018.

 Aims of the Expedition are as follows:

  • Nari Shakti: In consonance with the National policy to empower women to attain their full potential, the expedition aims to showcase ‘Nari Shakti’ on the world platform. This would also help to discard the societal attitudes and mindset towards women in India by raising visibility of participation by women in challenging environment.
  • Environment and Climate Change: Sailing encourages the use of environment friendly non-conventional renewable energy resources which affects the life of women. The expedition thereby aims at harnessing the energy to optimise the livelihood of the women onboard.
  • Make in India: The voyage also aims to show case the ‘Make in India’ initiative by sailing onboard the indigenously built INSV Tarini.
  • Meteorological/ Ocean/ Wave Data Observation: The crew would also collate and update Meteorological/ Ocean/ Wave data on a daily basis for subsequent analysis by research and development organisations.
  • Marine Pollution: The crew would monitor and report marine pollution on the high seas.

4.Refugees go to SC against Article 35A

Source: The Hindu

Some refugees from West Pakistan, who had migrated to India during Partition, have moved the Supreme Court challenging Article 35A of the Constitution relating to special rights and privileges of permanent residents of Jammu and Kashmir.


  • Nearly 1.25 lakh WPRs, who migrated from the then West Pakistan after partition of the country in 1947 to settle in Kathua, Samba and Jammu districts of the state, are seeking citizenship rights, employment rights and right to vote and contest the state assembly polls for the past 70 years.
  • According to official data 5,764 families comprising 47,915 persons had migrated from West Pakistan in 1947 and settled in the three districts of the state. Today their population increased to nearly 1.25 lakh.
  • These refugees are not considered permanent residents of the state, cannot vote in assembly polls and cannot do state government jobs even though they are living in the state for generations. However, they can vote in parliamentary elections.

Article 35A

  • It was added through the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954, issued under Article 370. Article 35A protects certain provisions of the J&K Constitution which denies property rights to native women who marry from outside the State. The denial of these rights extend to her children also.
  • Article 35A also empowers the State’s legislature to frame any law without attracting a challenge on grounds of violating the Right to Equality of people from other States or any other right under the Constitution.


  • Attempts to undo Article 35A of the Indian Constitution would strike a fatal blow to the nationalists in the state. There is an ongoing case in the Supreme Court challenging the validity of the Article, which prevents non-J&K state subjects from settling and buying property in the state. However, Kashmiris are apprehensive that such a move would open the sluice gates for a demographic transformation of the Valley.

5.Why infections picked up in hospitals are the big threat today, how world is trying to cope

Source: Indian Express

A Bengaluru firm has become India’s first to receive the international CARB-X grant to develop antibiotics to treat hospital-acquired infections.


  • CARB-X, or Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator, is a public-private international partnership, which was set up in 2016 to focus on innovations to improve diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant infections.
  • It grew out of President Barack Obama’s 2015 Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (CARB) initiative, and is funded by the London-based biomedical research charity Wellcome Trust, and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services.
  • The partnership provides a new, collaborative approach to speed research, development and delivery of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostics, and other innovative products to address the urgent global problem of drug-resistant bacterial infections. CARB-X will provide grants up to $ 455 million (over Rs 2,900 crore) over a five-year period to firms across the globe for antibiotics R&D.
  • All CARB-X funding so far is focused on projects to address the most resistant “Gram-negative” bacteria.

Gram-negative bacteria

  • Bacteria are classified as Gram-positive and Gram-negative, based on a structural difference in their cell walls that is detectable through a staining technique developed in 1884 by the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram.
  • Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for 20-25% of infections, and are multi drug resistant — which is the ability of bacteria to defend themselves against drugs that try to kill them.

Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (CARB)

  • The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria represents a serious threat to public health and the economy.
  • Detecting, preventing, and controlling antibiotic resistance requires a strategic, coordinated, and sustained effort.
  • The federal government will work domestically and internationally to detect, prevent, and control illness and death related to antibiotic-resistant infections by implementing measures that reduce the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help ensure the continued availability of effective therapeutics for the treatment of bacterial infections.

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