09, February 2018

National Informatics to support efforts aimed at making India low cost cyber security hub- National Meet on Grassroot Informatics

‘Centre of Excellence for Application Security’ (CoEAS) and ‘Secure, Scalable & Sugamya Website as a Service’(S3WaaS).

  • The digital initiatives of this government are aimed at not only becoming number one in Data Economics and Data Innovation but also to transform India by empowering citizens through the use of technology which is affordable and inclusive.
  • The National Meet on Grassroot Informatics is aimed at showcasing the various initiatives of NIC in creating and enhancing the Digital Infrastructure in the country. Some of these are – setting up of ICT infrastructure, developing state of the art products to enable the government and empower the citizens, its initiatives at state and district level along the lines of Digital India initiatives along with the various awareness campaigns on Digital Payment Systems encompassing DBT, PFMS, Cashless Payment, Aadhaar etc.

S3WaaS

  • S3WaaS is an online cloud service developed for government organizations for generating Secure, Scalable and Sugayam websites.
  • It provides government entities, to choose from various templates for generating websites as well as customizing and managing its content without any technical knowhow, thus enabling them to make their online presence.

Palestine:

  • Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean region, comprising parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip (along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) and the West Bank (the area west of the Jordan River).
  • The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan. Both the geographic area designated by the name and the political status of it have changed over the course of some three millennia. The region (or at least a part of it) is also known as the Holy Land and is held sacred among Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Since the 20th century it has been the object of conflicting claims of Jewish and Arab national movements, and the conflict has led to prolonged violence and, in several instances, open warfare.
  • The Gaza Strip is a small Palestinian territory, about twice the size of the District of Columbia, located along the Mediterranean coast between Egypt and Israel. Palestinians are ethnic Arab and majority Muslim.

  1. Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme

Source: PIB

  • Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR, RD & GR) provides financial assistance to State Governments to encourage sustainable development and efficient management of water resources through various schemes such as Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) etc. under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY).
  • For completion of these projects in a mission mode, funding mechanism through NABARD has been approved by the Government for both Central and State share.

Key facts:

  • AIBP was specifically started because a large number of river valley projects – both major and medium – have spilled from plan to plan, mainly because of financial constraints of state governments. Some of these projects were in an advanced stage of construction and could provide irrigation benefits in four or five agricultural seasons. The completion of these projects, however, was beyond the resources capability of the State Governments.

  1. SPACE TECHNOLOGY

Source: PIB

  • The recent experimental missions that were successfully accomplished were the Reusable Launch Vehicle – Technology Demonstrator in May 2016 and the first experimental flight of a sub-scale Scramjet engine in August 2016, towards reducing the cost of access to space.
  • The Department has also undertaken technology development and upgradation in the propulsion systems to increase the payload capability of the space transportation systems such as the development of a Semicryogenic engine, high thrust liquid engines and Cryogenic stages with increased propellant loading.
  • The Department has also undertaken the development of high thrust electric propulsion systems towards an all-electric communication satellites to replace the relatively heavier Chemical propulsion system.

Budget Allocation:  budget allocation of Department of Space during the FY 2017-18 is  9093.71 Crore. 20% of the total allocation for Department of Space are deployed for R&D activities.

  • The Space Economy at a Glance 2014 published by OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development), India stands at sixth position among the space faring nations, in terms of space budget as percentage of GDP

Space Economy At a glance: Space Economy at a Glance provides a statistical overview of the global space sector and its contributions to economic activity. This new edition provides indicators and statistics based on both official and private data, in over forty countries, and identifies new dynamics in the space sector.

 

  • Countries with long-established space programmes face growing challenges as lower costs and technological advances draw more countries and companies into the sector and give rise to a burgeoning commercial space industry.
  • The Space Economy at a Glance 2014 shows that while space budgets in the 34 OECD countries totalled USD 50.8 billion in 2013, down from USD 52.3 billion in 2008.
  • This will increase the opportunities for start-ups and emerging economies to get into the space sector, but it means governments should keep up their spending on space R&D, which can yield big returns in the form of new technologies, and invest in industry niches where they can be competitive in this new space race.

Scramjet Engine:

ISRO’s Air Breathing Propulsion Project (ABPP) occurred on August 28, 2016, which was the successful flight testing of its Scramjet.

  • This first experimental mission of Indian Space Research Organisation is aimed at the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System which uses hydrogen as fuel and oxygen from the atmosphere air as the oxidiser.
  • Technological challenges handled by ISRO scientists during the development of the scramjet engine include the design and development of hypersonic engine air intake, the supersonic combustor, proper thermal management and ground testing of the engines.
  • With this, India became the fourth country to demonstrate the flight testing of a scramjet engines. This mission is a milestone for ISRO’s future space transportation system.
  • The scramjet engine is used only during the atmospheric phase of the rocket’s flight.
  • Two scramjet engines were “hugging” the rocket on its sides and when the rocket reaches a height of 11 km the scramjet engines would start breathing air.
  • The ATV rocket weighed 3,277 kg during lift-off

 

  1. Several steps have been taken for the effective implementation of POCSO Act

Source: PIB

As per section 44 of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) constituted under section 3, or as the case may be, the State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCR) constituted under section 17, of the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005 are mandated to monitor the implementation of the provisions of the Act.

Key facts:

  • NCPCR has taken several measures to ensure implementation of the Act on the various issues mandated to be monitored by them which includes, a dedicated/transparent ‘Online Complaint System (e‑baalnidaan)’ to ensure timely/speedy redressal of complaints of various violations and deprivation of child rights, a ‘National Conference for Implementation of POCSO Act organized in association with MWCD, launched POCSO e-Box/e-mail/SMS on NCPCR’s website for easy and direct reporting of POCSO cases, issued advisory to DGPs of all States to generate awareness among children particularly the students for reporting of cases of sexual abuse and for use of POCSO e-Box, a consultation on Cyber Crime targeting Children with the Nodal Officers/Heads of Cyber Crime Cells of the States/UTs was organized and pursued the matter with State Govt./UT Administrations, developed a ‘Resource Book on Protection of Child Rights’ for the use of SCPCRs, launched a mass awareness campaign about provisions of POCSO Act in Delhi with support of multi stakeholders.
  • As the State Commissions are also mandated to monitor the implementation of the Act, NCPCR organized 4 National Level Consultation with all Chairpersons/Members of the State Commissions for effective implementation of the POCSO Act.
  • NCPCR also organized 39 State Level/District Level Training Workshop cum Awareness Programme on POCSO Act, 2012 during the year 2016 and 2017. SCPCRs are also mandated to function as prescribed under section 13 in respect of NCPCR.

National Commission for Protection of Child Rights

  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) was set up in March 2007 under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005, an Act of Parliament (December 2005).
  • NCPCR is a statutory body under the CPCR Act,2005 under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development ,Government of India. The Commission’s Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.

Commission:

  • The Commission visualises a rights-based perspective flowing into National Policies and Programmes, along with nuanced responses at the State, District and Block levels, taking care of specificities and strengths of each region. In order to touch every child, it seeks a deeper penetration to communities and households and expects that the ground experiences gathered at the field are taken into consideration by all the authorities at the higher level.
  • Thus the Commission sees an indispensable role for the State, sound institution-building processes, respect for decentralization at the local bodies and community level and larger societal concern for children and their well-being.

  1. Amendments made to the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Fast Track Insolvency Resolution Process for Corporate Persons) Regulations, 2017

Source: PIB

Amendments come into force in 08th Feb 2018 – Ministry of Corporate Affa

According to the Amendments:

  • The Resolution Professional shall appoint Registered Valuers to determine the fair value and the liquidation value of the Corporate Debtor. After the receipt of Resolution Plans, the Resolution Professional shall provide the fair value and the liquidation value to each member of the Committee of Creditors in electronic form, on receiving a confidentiality undertaking. The Resolution Professional and Registered Valuers shall maintain confidentiality of the fair value and the liquidation value.
  • The Resolution Professional shall submit the information memorandum in electronic form to each member of the Committee of Creditors within two weeks of his appointment as resolution professional and to each prospective resolution applicant latest by the date of invitation of resolution plan, on receiving confidentiality undertaking.
  • The Resolution Professional shall issue an invitation, including the evaluation matrix, to the prospective Resolution Applicants. He may modify the invitation as well as the evaluation matrix. However, the prospective resolution applicant shall get at least 15 days from the issue of invitation or modification thereof, whichever is later, to submit resolution plans. Similarly, he will get at least 8 days from the issue of evaluation matrix or modification thereof, whichever is later, to submit resolution plans. An abridged invitation shall be available on the web site, if any, of the corporate debtor, and on the web site, if any, designated by the IBBI for the purpose.
  • While the Resolution Applicant shall continue to specify the sources of funds that will be used to pay insolvency resolution process costs, liquidation value due to Operational Creditors and liquidation value due to dissenting financial creditors, the Committee of Creditors shall specify the amounts payable from resources under the Resolution Plan for these purposes.
  • A Resolution Plan shall provide for the measures, as may be necessary, for insolvency resolution of the Corporate Debtor for maximization of value of its assets. These may include reduction in the amount payable to the creditors, extension of a maturity date or a change in interest rate or other terms of a debt due from the Corporate Debtor, change in portfolio of goods or services produced or rendered by the Corporate Debtor, and change in technology used by the Corporate Debtor.
  • The Resolution Professional shall submit the Resolution Plan approved by the Committee of Creditors to the Adjudicating Authority, at least 15 days before the expiry of the maximum period permitted for the completion of the fast track Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process.

  1. SC tells Centre, states to fill posts on child rights panels and implement Juvenile Justice Act

Source: Indian Express

Supreme Court also directed the Centre and states to ensure that all positions in national and state commissions for protection of child rights are expeditiously filled up.

The Juvenile Justice Act:

  • The Juvenile Justice Act is an act to consolidate and amend the law relating to children alleged and found to be in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection by catering to their basic needs through proper care, protection, development, treatment social re-integration, by adopting a child-friendly approach in the adjudication and disposal of matters in the best interest of children and for their rehabilitation through processes provided, and institutions and bodies established here in under and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Key facts:

  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development in the Government of India and the State Governments should ensure that all positions in the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) and the State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (SCPR) are filled up well in time and adequate staff is provided to these statutory bodies so that they can function effectively and meaningfully for the benefit of the children.

The Provisions of the Constitution:

  • The provisions of the Constitution confer powers and impose duties, under clause (3) of article 15, clauses (e) and (f) of article 39, article 45 and article 47, on the State to ensure that all the needs of children are met and that their basic human rights are fully protected

Background:

  • The Government of India has acceded on the 11th December, 1992 to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the General Assembly of United Nations, which has prescribed a set of standards to be adhered to by all State parties in securing the best interest of the child.
  • It is expedient to re-enact the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 to make comprehensive provisions for children alleged and found to be in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection, taking into consideration the standards prescribed in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, 1985 (the Beijing Rules), the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (1990), the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (1993), and other related international instruments.

  1. Judiciary must be very cautious in diluting government’s economic policy: SC

Source: The Hindu

Judiciary must be “very cautious and circumspect” in diluting or setting aside an economic policy of the government, the Supreme Court

  • Courts must intervene against an economic policy of the government only if it was constitutionally unavoidable
  • Otherwise, good governance could be a casualty,” the court warned

Issues:

  • The court made the observations after quashing the Goa government’s policy to grant a second renewal of 88 mining leases with retrospective effect.
  • “Till recently, policy matters, particularly economic policy, were hands-off as far as the courts were concerned,” Justice Lokur observed.
  • However, recent decisions had seen the court “partially modify this theory and keep the window open to judicially review a policy if it does not serve the common good.

What Constitution says?

  • Any economic policy in violation of Article 39(b), which mandates the distribution of “material resources of the community” to subserve common good, and Article 14, the fundamental right to equality, will be liable to challenge and judicial review, the Supreme Court held.
  • A policy which alienates natural resources for maximising profits of private entrepreneurs would be in violation of Article 39(b), the court held. It clarified that “there is no constitutional requirement (let alone a mandate) for allocation of natural resources through the auction method (other than spectrum).”
  • However, it held that at the same time “auction process should not be given the go-by without any justification



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